Raymond Mauny studied law at the University of Poitiers and received his master’s degree in 1940, with a thesis titled The colonial dilemma in Franco-Italian relations since 1918. In 1937, he joined the AOF’s civil service administration because he was passionate about Africa.
In 1947, he joined the French Institute of Black Africa in Dakar, Senegal, where he worked alongside Professor Théodore Monod. Until 1962, he was in charge of the “Archeology and Prehistory” division. He took part in various archaeological missions in West Africa and the Sahara throughout the 1950s and 1960s .
Raymond Mauny was named professor of African history and holder of the chair of mediaeval African history at the Sorbonne in 1962. With Georges Balandier and Hubert Deschamps , he was one of the founding members of the Sorbonne’s African Research Center in 1963.
He was also president of the Société des Amis du Vieux Chinon and one of the main leaders of research on underground refuges from the Middle Ages .
He was the first to demonstrate the impossibility of the role attributed to the House of Slaves in the slave trade , in a Guide de Gorée of 1951